Frederick Robbins & Thomas Weller & John Enders

Robbins: 1916-2003 (86 years old)
Weller: 1915-2008 (93 years old)
Enders: 1897-1985 (88 years old)

United States

Year of great discovery/work

Enders (a microbiologist), Weller (a virologist) and Robbins (a physician) worked together to successfully grow poliovirus in cultures of human tissue. This was the first time a virus was grown outside of the body. Tissue culture is known as in vitro growth in contrast with in vivo, which is grown in the body. This discovery was important because it allowed virologists to study isolated cultures of viruses. Their research laid the groundwork for the polio vaccine.

Did you know?
This technique is still used to make vaccines today!